European integration and political party logos: a ‘visual Europeanization’?

Casiraghi, Matteo C. M., Cusumano, Eugenio and Chryssogelos, Angelos (2023) European integration and political party logos: a ‘visual Europeanization’? European Union Politics, 25 (1). pp. 86-105. ISSN 1741-2757


European integration scholars have paid little attention to the visual dimension of Europeanization. We fill this gap by analyzing how European Union integration reshapes political parties’ most visible symbols: their logos. We examine 579 party logos in Central, Eastern, and Southern Europe before and after countries became European Union members, obtained the status of candidates, or joined the European neighbourhood policy. Our difference-in-differences models show that European Union integration corresponds to a decrease in extremist and nationalist symbols as well as national flag colors. This ‘visual Europeanization’ process, prompted by population ecology and rebranding, cannot be solely explained by democratization or economic growth. Our analysis considers potential mechanisms that explain this correlation, incl. Europarty membership and normative diffusion, and discusses implications for the Europeanization literature.

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