Analysis of the causes and reasons for the failure of a decade of international efforts and measures against terrorist financing since the 9/11 attacks

Ridley, John Nicholas Cunningham (2010) Analysis of the causes and reasons for the failure of a decade of international efforts and measures against terrorist financing since the 9/11 attacks. Doctoral thesis, London Metropolitan University.

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Abstract / Description

The submitted prior output works form an analysis of the reasons for the overall failure of a decade on international efforts and measures in anti terrorist financing since the 9/11 attacks. The covering document deals with three perspectives, highlights the impact of such works and integrates them with current and relevant developments. The analysis is drawn from three perspectives. The three perspectives are, the inherent legal difficulties of promulgating anti terrorist and anti terrorist finance measures; the strategic oversight in identifying and realising the full significance of certain modus operandi of terrorist financing; and the strategic mindset of government policy makers and law enforcement intelligence in the area of certain types of financial crime and in the implementation of counter measures against terrorist financing. The inherent legal difficulties are dealt with by showing the basic difficulties of defining terrorism, and then the post 9 /11 measures and the impediments to achieving the objective of intelligence exchange between law enforcement agencies and between law enforcement and the banking institutions,and the particular issue of charities and NGOs compounding such difficulties. The strategic oversight of modus operandi for terrorist financing are dealt with through three examples of potential underestimations of a particular modus operandi, and an over focussing of another. Paradoxically, one of the underestimated potential modus operandi appears to provide its own exception to its trend in that a related but far more applicable modus operandi was highlighted by the studies. The third perspective, that of strategic mindset of policy makers and law enforcement leads on from the modus operandi in that it identifies part of the reason for understating one such modus operandi was due to the post 9/11 reaction and measures having their origins in past anti money laundering strategies, without recognising differences between money laundering and terrorist financing. Furthermore, later in the decade, as strategic intelligence identified trends, one such trend was utilised in error to support a flawed premise regarding the assessment of the continuing global capability of al Qaeda to finance and co-ordinate extremist groups and to fund their attacks. Finally an overall conclusion is formulated. In terms of impact, it is respectfully submitted that the cited works have all contributed and enhanced knowledge in the area of terrorist financing. Particular impact has been made in the specific areas of, 9 the overlooking of the true significance of the role of cash couriers, highlighted in the study of 2007, the report of which was disseminated to the trustees of sponsoring organisation, including Brigadier Ed Butler, former commander 16 Airborne Assault Brigade Helmand Province Afghanistan and Professor Paul Wilkinson, Emeritus, Professor of International Relations and former Director of the University of St Andrews Centre for the Study of Terrorism and Political Violence' " the vulnerabilities of Islamic banking, the study of which was received by the commissioning organisation and then disseminated to the Swiss National Bank and Swiss government ministers.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Additional Information:
Uncontrolled Keywords: terrorism; anti terrorist financing; 9/11 attacks; financial crime; intelligence; law enforcement agencies; banking institutions
Subjects: 300 Social sciences > 320 Political science
Department: School of Social Sciences and Professions
School of Social Sciences (to June 2021)
Depositing User: Chiara Repetto
Date Deposited: 05 May 2022 10:59
Last Modified: 05 May 2022 10:59


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