Effect of manganese and nickel on the cleavage fracture strength of ferritic weld metal

Sandford, Andrew Robert Brian. (1990) Effect of manganese and nickel on the cleavage fracture strength of ferritic weld metal. Doctoral thesis, City of London Polytechnic.


All weld metal test pieces were produced from two commercial and six experimental 7016 type electrodes, each having different contents of manganese and nickel. These were tested in three point bending over a range of depressed temperatures in a cryostatic cell of the author’s devising. Notched samples were used to obtain values for the cleavage fracture strength. This was calculated by reference to slip line field theory from the fracture load at the test temperature where fracture was first coincident with general yielding. The commercial electrodes were first tested in the as welded condition and all eight electrodes were then tested after a heat treatment designed to give a microstructure similar to that found in re-heated weld metal. Notched and pre-cracked samples were then tested in the heat treated condition to determine KI values. Fracture surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscope and grain size measurements made by optical microscopy. Lower shelf impact energy measurements were also made.

The results show that both manganese and nickel individually increased the cleavage fracture strength. In combination the best cleavage properties were given by alloying contents of 1.0% manganese and 1.5% nickel increasing alloying beyond this level had a detrimental effect. The mechanism for this was a combination of grain size effects, changes in the slip characteristics of the material, the size, distribution and nature of inclusions and the effects of alloying on grain boundary and matrix/inclusion cohesion. In re-heated material at test temperatures studied the plane strain fracture toughness is influenced by similar factors to those which determine cleavage fracture strength.

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