Novel miniature microwave quasi-elliptical function bandpass filters with wideband harmonic suppression

Riaz, Muhammad (2017) Novel miniature microwave quasi-elliptical function bandpass filters with wideband harmonic suppression. Doctoral thesis, London Metropolitan University.


Filters are integral components in all wireless communication systems, and their function is to permit predefined band of frequencies into the system and reject all other signals. The ever-growing demand in the use of the radio frequency (RF) spectrum for new applications has resulted in the need for high performance microwave filters with strict requirements on both inband and out-of-band characteristics. High selectivity, high rejection, low loss and extremely wide spurious-free performance are required for both transmitter and receiver channels. In addition, these devices need to be highly compact, easy to integrate within transceivers and should be amenable to low cost manufacturing. High selectivity is essential to enable the guard band between adjacent channels to be reduced thus improving the efficiency of the RF spectrum and hence increasing the capacity of the system. A low insertion-loss, high return-loss and small group-delay in the passband are necessary to minimize signal degradation. A wide stopband is necessary to suppress spurious passbands outside the filter’s bandwidth that may allow spurious emissions from modulation process (harmonic, parasitic, intermodulation and frequency conversion products) and interfere with other systems. The EMC Directive 89/336/EEC mandates that all electronic equipment must comply with the applicable EN specification for EMI.

This thesis presents the research work that has resulted in the development of innovative and compact microstrip bandpass filters that fulfil the above stringent requirements for wireless communication systems. In fact, the proposed highly compact planar microstrip filters provide an alternative solution for existing and next generation of wireless communications systems. In particular, the proposed filters exhibit a low-loss and quasi-elliptic function response that is normally only possible with filter designs using waveguides and high temperature superconductors. The selectivity of the filters has been improved by inserting a pair of transmission zeros between the passband edges, and implementing notched rejection bands in the filter’s frequency response to widen its stopband performance. The filter structures have been analysed theoretically and modelled by using Keysight Technologies’ Advanced Design System (ADS™) and Momentum® software.

The dissertation is essentially composed of four main sections. In the first section, several compact and quasi-elliptic function bandpass filter structures are proposed and theoretically analysed. Selectivity and stopband performance of these filters is enhanced by loading the input and output feed-lines with inductive stubs that introduce transmission zeros at specified frequencies in the filter’s frequency response. This technique is shown to provide a sharp 3-dB roll-off and steep selectivity skirt with high out-of-band rejection over a wide frequency span. In addition, the 3-dB fractional bandwidth of the filters is shown to be controllable by manipulating the filter’s geometric parameters.

Traditional microwave bandpass filters are designed using quarter-wavelength distributed transmission-line resonators that are either end-coupled or side-coupled. The sharpness of the filter response is determined by the number of resonators employed which degrades the filter’s passband loss performance. This results in a filter with a significantly larger footprint which precludes miniaturization. To circumvent these drawbacks the second section describes the development of a novel and compact wideband bandpass filter with the desired characteristics. The quasi-elliptic function filter comprises open-loop resonators that are coupled to each other using a stub loaded resonator. The proposed filter is shown to achieve a wideband 3-dB fractional bandwidth of 23% with much better loss performance, sharp skirt selectivity and very wide rejection bandwidth.

The third section describes the investigation of novel ultra-wideband (UWB) microstrip bandpass filter designs. Parametric study enabled the optimization of the filter’s performance which was verified through practical measurements. The proposed filters meet the stringent characteristics required by modern communications systems, i.e. the filters are highly compact and miniature even when fabricated on a low dielectric constant substrate, possess a sharp quasi-elliptic function bandpass response with low passband insertion-loss, and ultra-wide stopband performance.

With the rapid development of multi-band operation in modern and next generation wireless communication systems, there is a great demand for single frequency discriminating devices that can operate over multiple frequency bands to facilitate miniaturization. These multi-band bandpass filters need to be physically small, have low insertion-loss, high return-loss, and excellent selectivity. In the fourth section two miniature microstrip dual-band and triple-band bandpass filter designs are explored. A detailed parametric study was conducted to fully understand how the geometric parameters of the filters affected their performance. The optimized filters were fabricated and measured to validate their performance.

Muhammad Riaz-Thesis.pdf - Published Version

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