Lipid-soluble nutrient status of healthy Omani school children before and after intervention with oily fish meal or re-esterified triglyceride fish oil

Al-Ghannami, S. A. and Sedlak, E. and Hussein, I. S. and Min, Yoeju and Al-Shmmkhi, S. M. and Al-Oufi, H. S. and Al-Mazroui A, A. and Ghebremeskel, Kebreab (2016) Lipid-soluble nutrient status of healthy Omani school children before and after intervention with oily fish meal or re-esterified triglyceride fish oil. Nutrition, 32 (1). pp. 73-78. ISSN 0899-9007

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Abstract

Objectives
Over the last two decades, the Omani diet has changed considerably to resemble a high calorie and a low nutrient density Western diet. We investigated fat soluble nutrient status of children before and after intervention with fish diet or fish oil.

Methods
Children aged 9 and 10 years (n=314) were recruited from a randomly selected three schools. The schools were assigned to fish, fish oil or control group and the children given a lightly grilled oily fish, a re-esterified triglyceride fish oil capsule or none for 12 weeks.

Results
Plasma vitamin A, beta carotene, vitamin E concentrations and vitamin E/total lipid ratio at baseline were 2.7±0.85 μmol/L, 0.68±0.48 μmol/L, 21.1±4.8 μmol/L and 5.0±0.81 μmol/mmol, respectively, and none of the children were deficient. They were severely deficient (<27.5 nmol/L; 10.5% boys and 28.5% girls), deficient (27.5- 44.9 nmol/L; 47.6% boys and 49.4% girls) or insufficient (50 – 74.9 nmol/L; 34.6% boys and 21.5% girls) in vitamin D. 7.3% boys and 0.6% girls had optimal status (≥ 75 nmol/L). Parathyroid hormone (5.0±1.7 vs. 5.8±2.1 pmol/L; P<0.0001) and alkaline phosphatase (225.2±66.6 vs. 247.8±73.7 U/L; P<0.01) levels were lower in boys. Post-intervention, the fish oil (54.1±17.5 nmol/L; P<0.001) and fish (49.2±17.4 nmol/L; P<0.05) groups had elevated levels of vitamin D compared with the controls (42.3±17.5 nmol/L).

Conclusions
Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in Omani school children and it can be mitigated with omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. Vitamin D plays a crucial role in skeletal and extra-skeletal systems. Hence, there is a need for children-focused programme of food fortification and outdoor activities to alleviate the problem.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: nutrition, Oman, Omani school children, fish, fish oil
Subjects: 500 Natural Sciences and Mathemetics > 570 Life sciences; biology
Department: School of Human Sciences
Related URLs:
Depositing User: Yoeju Min
Date Deposited: 02 Dec 2015 10:30
Last Modified: 02 Dec 2015 10:30
URI: http://repository.londonmet.ac.uk/id/eprint/841

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