Dermal delivery of niacinamide—in vivo studies

Zhang, Yanling, Kung, Chin-Ping, Iliopoulos, Fotis, Sil dos Santos, Bruno, Hadgraft, Jonathan and Lane, Majella E. (2021) Dermal delivery of niacinamide—in vivo studies. Pharmaceutics, 13 (726). pp. 1-14. ISSN 1999-4923


In vivo human studies are considered to be the “gold standard” when investigating (trans)dermal delivery of actives. Previously, we reported the effects of a range of vehicles on the delivery of niacinamide (NIA) using conventional Franz cell studies. In the present work, dermal delivery of NIA was investigated in vivo in human subjects using confocal Raman spectroscopy (CRS) and tape stripping (TS). The vehicles investigated included propylene glycol (PG), Transcutol® P (TC), binary combinations of PG with oleic acid (OA) or linolenic acid (LA) and a ternary system comprising of TC, caprylic/capric triglyceride (CCT) and dimethyl isosorbide (DMI). For the CRS studies, higher area under curve (AUC) values for NIA were observed for the PG:LA binary system compared with PG, TC and TC:CCT:DMI (p < 0.05). A very good correlation was found between the in vitro cumulative permeation of NIA and the AUC values from Raman intensity depth profiles, with a Pearson correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.84. In addition, an excellent correlation (R2 = 0.97) was evident for the signal of the solvent PG and the active. CRS was also shown to discriminate between NIA in solution versus crystalline NIA. The findings confirm that CRS is emerging as a powerful approach for dermatopharmacokinetic studies of both actives and excipients in human.

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