Analyzing roadblocks of industry 4.0 adoption using graph theory and matrix approach

Virmani, Naveen, Salve, Urmi Ravindra, Kumar, Anil and Luthra, Sunil (2023) Analyzing roadblocks of industry 4.0 adoption using graph theory and matrix approach. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 70 (2). pp. 454-463. ISSN 1558-0040


The manufacturing era is going through an evolutionary phase from Industry 3.0 to Industry 4.0 (I4.0). In 2011, Germany initiated I4.0 during the Hanover fair in collaboration with industrialists, academicians and researchers. The benefits of implementing I4.0 are attracting the curiosity of practitioners. In current academic literature, there is little discussion related to analysing potential roadblocks of I4.0 implementation using mathematical modelling. This paper has identified roadblocks through an extensive literature review and validation has been carried out by gathering experts’ opinions. As per the findings, the identified roadblocks have been categorized into five sections: management roadblocks, operational roadblocks, human resource roadblocks, procedural and behavioural roadblocks. A case study of the automobile industry has been discussed. The data was collected from experts in the area of I4.0. A Graph Theory and Matrix Approach (GTMA) was applied to evaluate the relative intensity of the roadblocks, Comprehensive I4.0 Index (CII) and its range for each category of roadblock. Implications for industrialists, practitioners and academicians are provided.

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